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“印度将受益于上合组织 ” Shanghai Spirit and India’s Participation
发布时间:2018年05月17日  来源:中印对话  作者:  阅读:181


能源和安全:印度的关切

Energy and Security: India’s Interest


印度自1947年独立之后,就一直受到恐怖主义的危害,即使到今天,印度人口已经占到了世界总人口的15%,这么庞大规模的人口,依然每天都会遭受到恐怖主义的威胁。这种负面作用的背后也存在一定的积极意义,那就是印度长期以来积累了反恐的丰富经验。在反恐领域,印度已经有了完善的法律法规,对于整个南亚的反恐都有着一定作用。


Since India’s independence in 1947, terrorism has remained a constant issue. Even today, Indian people, who represent 15% of the world population, face the threat of terrorism on a daily basis. If any bright side can be gleaned from this gloomy historical legacy, it is that India has gained rich experience combating terrorism. India has already enacted extensive national legislation on this issue, which could also be applicable to greater South Asia.

 

1987年,南亚区域合作联盟成立,这是第一个所有南亚国家都参与的反恐组织。在当时,恐怖主义不是什么大问题,是贫穷国家才有的问题。但如今,恐怖主义已经成为了世界问题。自1996年起,印度就在严肃认真地推动联合国成立反恐会议机制。印度总理莫迪如今不管走到哪里都会强调,恐怖主义不是任何一个国家自己的问题,而是区域性问题、世界性问题。加入上合组织,印度可以跟成员国分享反恐的经验。


In 1987, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation was established with participation from every country in South Asia. It was the first organization to bring together every South Asian state to work on terrorism. Terrorism at that time was not a major issue and was widely regarded as a poor-country problem. Now, however, the problem has become universal. And since 1996, India has been seriously promoting and turning to the UN convention on countering terrorism. Wherever he visits, the Indian Prime Minister addresses the issue of terrorism as regional rather than domestic. Through joining the SCO, India can share its experience with other members.


进入21世纪,随着经济发展速度的起飞以及对能源需求的增加,印度逐渐成为一个能源消费大国。然而直到今天,印度仍然有约四分之一的人口用不上电。印度政府正在不遗余力地提高能源供给能力。由于印度向美国、法国购买核能反应堆的合约陷入危机,印度不得不寻找新的合作伙伴。而上海合作组织的所有成员国都有着充沛的能源。特别是中国,印度所有的非核能新能源项目设备都来自中国。由此可见,上海合作组织是印度实现国家能源计划的重要伙伴。


Moreover, India emerged as a major consumer of energy resources in the early 21th century due to its rocketing economic growth rate the accompanying new demand for energy resources. Significantly, a large chunk of Indian populations, about a fourth, still lacks access to consistent daily electricity, even today. The Indian government is working hard to increase production of energy. With India’s contracts to introduce nuclear reactors from the United States and France in jeopardy, it needs to look for new partners. Shanghai Cooperation Organization is composed of several countries with energy surpluses. If India were to turn to China for conventional new power project equipment rather than nuclear, the SCO would become very important conduit for India to achieve the objectives of its national power agenda. 

 

上海精神的重要作用

Shanghai Spirit Significance


上海社科院著名专家潘光为上海精神的阐释做了大量工作。他曾撰文提到,上海精神起源于和平共处五项原则,而中国和印度从上世纪50年代起就开始倡导和平共处五项原则。


Pan Guang, a famous Chinese scholar from the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, has done considerable work on the Shanghai Spirit. His writings trace the origin of the Shanghai Spirit to five principles of peaceful coexistence that China and India have both promoted since the 1950s. 

 

有人担心印度和巴基斯坦一同加入上合组织会为该组织议事带来不和谐的声音。由于上海精神的存在,这样的担心变得没有必要。去年,同是上合组织成员国的印度和中国在洞朗地区发生对峙,紧张局势开始于六月份,就在当月,在阿斯塔纳召开的上合峰会上, 印度正式成为了成员国。峰会期间也有其他令人振奋的消息,中国国家主席习近平和印度总理莫迪达成共识,即不会让两国之间的差别演变为冲突。在接下来的G20峰会和金砖峰会期间,双方又一再强调这一共识。由于上合组织在互信、互利、平等、协商、尊重多样文明、谋求共同发展的精神下运作,这就为达成阿斯塔纳共识创立了条件。印度受益于上海精神,并且也乐于全力在这一精神的框架下做出自己的贡献。


Some feared that the addition of both India and Pakistan to the group would sour SCO negotiations. Such concerns can be dismissed if the Shanghai Spirit prevails. Partly thanks to the Shanghai Spirit, the participation of India and Pakistan has not disturbed negotiations of this group. Last year, member states India and China were involved in the Donglang (Doklam) standoff. Just as the tensions rose in June, the SCO summit was held in Astana, at which India was admitted as a full member. Moreover, that summit also produced something equally beautiful: broad consensus between China and India. An understanding between President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi pledged that they will not allow differences to escalate into disputes. And that idea was reinforced in meetings in Hamburg in July and then in Xiamen in September. As SCO works towards mutual benefits in dialogue, culture diversity and the promotion of shared development, it creates an atmosphere conducive to the consensus in Astana. India has benefited from Shanghai Spirit. India’s contributions have become integral to it. 

 

上海精神使得各国无论大小都能够平等协商。中国一再申明不会寻求霸权。上海合作组织的章程也确保了所有决定都需要通过协商达成共识。上海精神使得印度能够在这一组织中感到舒适,也能减小印度和中国的差距。如今中国的GDP已经达到13.1万亿美元,而印度的GDP只有2.6万亿美元,两国差距明显。上海精神指导该组织的机制和协商,不仅能够给中印双边关系带来好处,达成阿斯塔纳共识, 又能提振印度的信心,有助于印度跟日益强大的中国打交道。印度也会专注于如何打造建设性的关系。


The Shanghai Spirit also helps all big and small countries negotiate comfortably. China has repeatedly stressed that it does not seek hegemony. The SCO charter ensures that all decisions be made through consultation and consensus. Through the Shanghai Spirit, India can comfortably overcome the increasing asymmetry in China-India relations. Today, China’s GDP is 13.1 trillion dollars. In contrast, India’s is 2.6 trillion dollars, a difference which has increasingly strained the relationship. However, if the Shanghai Spirit guides the mechanisms and processes of negotiation, it will boost bilateral benefits of the Astana consensus as well as India’s confidence that it can stand eye-to-eye with powerful China. And it will keep India’s focus on building constructive relationships.


这会收到怎样的成效?如今,上合组织已经有了十几项合作机制,都在上海精神的指导下运作。也就是说,这种沟通的舒适感,存在于各成员国从学者、商人到官员政客的各个层面的人士。 我认为,上合组织会逐渐成为一个共同体。东盟就在将自己打造成一个共同体。而上海精神使得上合组织也在朝这个方向发展。印度在国内也有类似的情况。印度国内非常注重、鼓励文化多样性。上合组织同印度很像,也是一个文化多元的共同体。


How will this development change things? To date, SCO has established over a dozen mechanisms which all promote the Spirit. The aforementioned comfort is being created at various levels among academics, business people, politicians, bureaucrats – all kinds of people. In my opinion, this path gradually leads towards creating a community. ASEAN, for example, has been working to create a community. Without even trying, the Shanghai Spirit is likely pushing SCO towards becoming a community. And it is similar to what India has been doing at home. India pays great attention to multiculturalism and appreciating and celebrating cultural diversity. The SCO mirrors India, as a multicultural behemoth that appreciates unity in diversity. 

 

上合不会成为另一个北约

SCO is No NATO


长期以来,西方国家提起上合组织总认为这个组织想成为另一个北约,一个太平洋上的组织。在我看来,上合不会这么做。如今我们并没有处于世界大战之中,如今的世界也并没有分成两个阵营。世界已经大不同,我们所面对的挑战也大不相同。如今各国所热议的议题是人口拐卖、恐怖主义、气候变化、流行疾病……这些问题都超越了国别的界限。任何一个国家,无论有多强大,都无法独自解决。各国面临的挑战都跨越了国界。在这样的情况下,上合组织如果想成为另一个北约会很愚蠢,这并不是设立上合组织的初衷。


For long time, SCO has often been cited in the West as an Eastern version of NATO, which positions it as a rival of the trans-Atlantic organization. From my perspective, it will not become like that group which is a relic of the Cold War. The world is no longer divided into two super powers. The international geopolitical situation is very different today. And our challenges are also different. The kinds of problems that frequently arise in heated discussions today are human trafficking, terrorism, climate change and pandemics – all issues that transcend national boundaries. Nowadays, no nation, however powerful it is, can resolve its challenges alone. Challenges are no longer confined within borders. In this kind of scenario, it would be foolish for the SCO to seek to become like NATO, because that is not what the modern age demands. 

 

2018 年3月下旬,察哈尔学会高级研究员斯瓦兰·辛格来京参加“新时代上合组织新发展”智库论坛,会后接受了《中印对话》杂志的采访,本文为采访内容整理稿

文章来源:中印对话,2018-5-16

原评论来源:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/fKtWFGteuQpyhdANxGYcvQ

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