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“战争、冲突与非暴力化解”学术研讨会-主题报告Egon Spiegel
发布时间:2014年04月11日  来源:察哈尔学会  作者:Egon Spiegel  阅读:431

和平学的基本主题

The Basic Theme of Peace Studies

Our longing for peace and our attempts of realizing it are probably so old like the human being exists. After the Second World War we began a systematic reflection about the conditions and methods of peace building. The peace science or peace studies were born. One of the most influential scientists was and is Johan Galtung. Since the 1970s you can find Peace Studies as a discipline in universities (worldwide about 400 Peace Studies Programs, especially in the USA about 200). The exact number of Peace Studies Programs all over the world depends on our understanding and definition of peace in general and peace studies in particular, especially when we distinguish peace studies as system immanent (for example military peace studies) or system transcendent (independent academic peace studies). As peace is a state we cannot define finally, science of peace is only thinkable as dynamic and progressive and therefore system transcendent. Against this background each definition of peace is actually limited and therefore wrong. We are not allowed to anticipate what peace actually means. Peace cannot be identified with any system. Nevertheless this problem mustn’t paralyze us in thinking how we can build peace. The only one we do know is that peace as an indescribable state is only allowed to be realized by nonviolence. Each kind of violence is fixing peace and neglecting his unanticipatable nature.

Against the background of the complexity of peace and dependence of Peace Studies on uncountable scientific disciplines it is difficult and almost impossible to fix the content of Peace Studies in the frame of an article like this. In this situation it seems that an article which contents theses is a good alternative. Theses are appropriate because of their open character. They are pithily, pointed claims the addressees are allowed to fill with own inspirations, and develop, modify and update on their own experiences. Theses circle a topic area by setting essential, extensible cornerstones. Theses imply that behind them there are huge reflection areas and that there are a lot of thoughts, arguments, and examples which are here not expressed en detail. Theses can reduce or compress complexity. Although an article contented theses looks not very systematic the pointed out theses are placed in a didactic well reflected sequence. Theses usually bring out subjective positions, and invite for dialog and discussion. They provoke antitheses. In this sense the following contribution invites for a dispute with a German peace scientist who got his theses in the wide field of international oriented peace research, not at least on the base of his research and teaching in Chinese universities by accompanying Prof. Dr. Liu Cheng from Nanjing University.     

Egon Spiegel  University of Vechta (德国费希塔大学)

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